Report on the technical workshop on costs and benefits of adaptation options

This report provides a summary of the technical workshop on costs and benefits of adaptation options, organized under the Nairobi work programme on impacts, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change. Discussions at the workshop addressed methodologies for assessing costs and benefits of adaptation options and how these methodologies are applied in and across different sectors.

Handbook on Methods for Climate Change Impact Assessment and Adaptation Strategies

This handbook is designed to provide newcomers to the field of climate impact and adaptation assessment with a guide to available research methods, particularly for answering the first question. The handbook will also serve as a ready reference for many others currently engaged in impacts and adaptation research.

Risk and economic damage assessment for 2025 and 2100, with and without adaptation

In this report, concepts of methodology are outlined and projections of extreme events and their impacts, risks and damages, are presented, without consideration of adaptation and with consideration of adaptation. A review of impacts (especially related to floods, droughts and heat waves in agriculture, forest fires and windfalls), offered in the present report, has particular reference to the time horizon of 2020s and to the end of the 21st century.

Adaptation in integrated assessment modeling: where do we stand?

It is analyzed how modelers have chosen to describe adaptation within an integrated framework, and suggest many ways they could improve the treatment of adaptation by considering more of its bottom-up characteristic

Global cooling: increasing world-wide urban albedos to offset CO2

Increasing urban albedo can reduce summertime temperatures, resulting in better air quality and savings from reduced air-conditioning costs. In addition, increasing urban albedo can result in less absorption of incoming solar radiation by the surface-troposphere system, countering to some extent the global scale effects of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations.

Adaptation to Climate Change: Linking Disaster Risk Reduction and Insurance

To address expected losses, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Parties have identified both disaster risk reduction strategies and risk transfer mechanisms including insurance as potential elements in a new climate agreement. This paper addresses the potential role of insurance in reducing disaster risk and thus advancing adaptation.

From Risk to Opportunity - Insurers response to climate change

The report describes the activities of the insurance industry. Insurers have begun to embrace a more sophisticated approac to climate change, increasingly recognizing the issue as one of “enterprise risk management,” which cuts across the domains of underwriting, asset management, and corporate governance.

Adapting agriculture to climate change

There are many potential adaptation options available for marginal change of existing agricultural systems, often variations of existing climate risk management. We show that implementation of these options is likely to have substantial benefits under moderate climate change for some cropping systems. However, there are limits to their effectiveness under more severe climate changes. Hence, more systemic changes in resource allocation need to be considered, such as targeted diversification of production systems and livelihoods.

Challenges and opportunities for cropping systems in a changing climate

The report outlines how climate and atmospheric composition is already changing and how it may change further, how these changes may be affecting cropping system function, the adaptations that may be needed for cropping systems in the future and some key research challenges in the next five years.