Ranking Port Cities with High Exposure and Vulnerability to Climate Extremes: Exposure Estimates

This global screening study makes a first estimate of the exposure of the world’s large port cities to coastal flooding due to storm surge and damage due to high winds. This assessment also investigates how climate change is likely to impact each port city’s exposure to coastal flooding by the 2070s, alongside subsidence and population growth and urbanisation.

The economics of adaptation along developed coastlines.

Sea-level rise (SLR) increases the risk of permanent inundation of coastal lands and structures, while also increasing the risk of periodic damage from storms and risks to ecological resources. Prior studies have illustrated the importance of considering adaptation measures, such as armoring and beach nourishment, when estimating the economic cost of SLR, but these studies have taken the form either of careful, geographically limited case studies or national estimates based on limited samples.

Climate change risks to US infrastructure: impacts on roads, bridges, coastal development, and urban drainage.

Changes in temperature, precipitation, sea level, and coastal storms will likely increase the vulnerability of infrastructure across the United States. Using four models that analyze vulnerability, impacts, and adaptation, this paper estimates impacts to roads, bridges, coastal properties, and urban drainage infrastructure and investigates sensitivity to varying greenhouse gas emission scenarios, climate sensitivities, and global climate models.

Sea-level rise impact models and environmental conservation: A review of models and their applications.

Conservation managers and policy makers need tools to identify coastal habitats and human communities that are vulnerable to sea-level rise. Coastal impact models can help determine the vulnerability of areas and populations to changes in sea level. Model outputs may be used to guide decisions about the location and design of future protected areas and development, and to prioritize adaptation of existing protected area investments.

Managing Coastal Vulnerability.

This book breaks down primary concepts of coastal vulnerability by providing a thorough discussion of the concept. It addresses coastal vulnerability around the world with specific examples from the Ebro Delta (Spain), the crumbling cliffs of Corton Village/Suffolk (UK), and tsunami-worn Phuket (Thailand/Indian Ocean) as well as others. Ultimately, a framework is established for discussion about global locations and sustaining resilience of coastal areas.

Coastal flood damage and adaptation costs under 21st century sea-level rise.

Coastal flood damage and adaptation costs under 21st century sea-level rise are assessed on a global scale taking into account a wide range of uncertainties in continental topography data, population data, protection strategies, socioeconomic development and sea-level rise.

Integrating knowledge to assess coastal vulnerability to sea-level rise: The development of the DIVA tool.

This paper describes the development of the DIVA tool, a user-friendly tool for assessing coastal vulnerability from subnational to global levels. The development involved the two major challenges of integrating knowledge in the form of data, scenarios and models from various natural, social and engineering science disciplines and making this integrated knowledge accessible to a broad community of end-users.

A global ranking of port cities with high exposure to climate extremes.

This paper presents a first estimate of the exposure of the world’s large port cities (population exceeding one million inhabitants in 2005) to coastal flooding due to sea-level rise and storm surge now and in the 2070s, taking into account scenarios of socio-economic and climate changes.

Protection versus retreat: the economic costs of sea-level rise.

This paper analyses the relative role of protection and mitigation expenditures within the total costs of climate change induced sea level rise. It derives a rule of thumb to approximate the optimal level of protection. Economic efficiency requires that protection expenditures are designed such that the sum of protection costs plus remaining land loss damage is minimised. A formula is derived according to which the optimal protection level depends on the relative importance of dryland loss compared to the costs of accelerated wetland loss plus protection expenditures.

Strategies for Adaptation to Sea Level Rise.

This report represents the first survey on a global scale of adaptive options for coastal areas in response to a possible acceleration of sea level rise and the implications of these options. The report provides general information on options for a range of coastal areas which cover large continental states to small coastal islands.