Total Costs and Budgetary Effects of Adaptation to Climate Change: An Assessment for the European Union

This paper focuses on the fiscal effects of adaptation to climate change. Beside adaptation induced effects, climate change has other fiscal implications, like public spending fo mitigation efforts, the implementation and use of fiscal instruments in climate policy, or reduced tax revenue due to productivity losses in the economy.

Klimawandel und Küste: Zeit zur Anpassung?! (Climate Change and Coast: Time for Adaptation?!)

Global climate change will manifest itself on the German North Sea coast not only in an accelerated rise of sea level but also in rising temperatures, an altered distribution of precipitation and wind as well as higher CO2 levels. In spite of uncertainties regarding the type and scope of such changes, possible impacts have to be investigated in order to enable preventive (adaptive) action to be taken.

Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Strategies in Italy. An Economic Assessment

In this paper, the economic value of the impacts of climate change is assessed for different Italian economic sectors and regions. Sectoral and regional impacts are then aggregated to provide a macroeconomic estimate of variations in GDP induced by climate change in the next decades.

Climate adaptation in the Netherlands

In spite of various mitigation strategies that are being implemented to reduce and prevent future adverse effects of climate change, there is widespread agreement that climate change will nonetheless take place. This report anticipates on the urgent need to respond adequately to climate change in the Netherlands by identifying adaptation strategies both for the public and private sector. In the analysis we focus on sector-specific adaptation options and explore some of the synergies that may exist amongst the various policy options.

The Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change – The Case of Germany

Therefore, this paper aims at developing a broad economic framework for adaptation which can provide a foundation and a starting point for future economic research. The economic analysis allows us to distinguish between autonomous adaptation by private agents on the one hand and collective adaptation measures by government entities on the other. Our theoretical economic approach follows the basic economic paradigm of efficient competitive markets where government intervention is justified by market failure only.

The Costs to Developing Countries of Adapting to Climate Change: New Methods and Estimates

To shed light on adaptation costs—and with the global climate change negotiations resuming in December 2009 in Copenhagen—the Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change (EACC) study was initiated by the World Bank in early 2008, funded by the governments of the Netherlands, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Its objectives are to develop an estimate of adaptation costs for developing countries and to help decision makers in developing countries understand and assess the risks posed by climate change and design better strategies to adapt to climate change.

A qualitative assessment of climate adaptation options and some estimates of adaptation costs

The aim of the current study is to provide a ‘qualitative assessment’ of the direct and indirect effects of adaptation options and to provide an assessment of some of the costs and benefits of adaptation options. The present report presents and summarizes the results of all phases of the study: an inventory of adaptation options, a qualitative assessment of the effects of the adaptation options for the Netherlands in the long run, a database which allows to rank the various options according to a set of criteria and a relative ranking on the basis of these criteria.

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