Agricultural Impacts and Adaptations to Climate Change in Europe

This paper briefly described the impacts of climate change on European agricultural systems, and further discusses how agriculture in Europe may adapt to climate change and how this may influence European agricultural policy.

Adaptation to Climate Change in the Agricultural Sector

This study on ‘Adaptation to Climate Change in the Agricultural Sector’ aims to provide the European Commission with an improved understanding of the potential implications of climate change and adaptation options for European agriculture, covering the EU 27 Member States. It also aims to assist policy makers as they take up the adaptation challenge and develop measures to reduce the vulnerability of the sector to climate change.

Adapting agriculture to climate change

There are many potential adaptation options available for marginal change of existing agricultural systems, often variations of existing climate risk management. We show that implementation of these options is likely to have substantial benefits under moderate climate change for some cropping systems. However, there are limits to their effectiveness under more severe climate changes. Hence, more systemic changes in resource allocation need to be considered, such as targeted diversification of production systems and livelihoods.

Challenges and opportunities for cropping systems in a changing climate

The report outlines how climate and atmospheric composition is already changing and how it may change further, how these changes may be affecting cropping system function, the adaptations that may be needed for cropping systems in the future and some key research challenges in the next five years.

Climate adaptation in the Netherlands

In spite of various mitigation strategies that are being implemented to reduce and prevent future adverse effects of climate change, there is widespread agreement that climate change will nonetheless take place. This report anticipates on the urgent need to respond adequately to climate change in the Netherlands by identifying adaptation strategies both for the public and private sector. In the analysis we focus on sector-specific adaptation options and explore some of the synergies that may exist amongst the various policy options.

The Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change – The Case of Germany

Therefore, this paper aims at developing a broad economic framework for adaptation which can provide a foundation and a starting point for future economic research. The economic analysis allows us to distinguish between autonomous adaptation by private agents on the one hand and collective adaptation measures by government entities on the other. Our theoretical economic approach follows the basic economic paradigm of efficient competitive markets where government intervention is justified by market failure only.

Environmental and Economic Costs of Soil Erosion and Conservation Benefits

In this article, we (i) examine the ways in which erosion reduces soil fertility and crop productivity, (ii) assess the environmental and economic costs of soil erosion, and (iii) compare various agricultural techniques and practices that reduce erosion and help conserve water and soil resources.

The Costs to Developing Countries of Adapting to Climate Change: New Methods and Estimates

To shed light on adaptation costs—and with the global climate change negotiations resuming in December 2009 in Copenhagen—the Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change (EACC) study was initiated by the World Bank in early 2008, funded by the governments of the Netherlands, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Its objectives are to develop an estimate of adaptation costs for developing countries and to help decision makers in developing countries understand and assess the risks posed by climate change and design better strategies to adapt to climate change.

A qualitative assessment of climate adaptation options and some estimates of adaptation costs

The aim of the current study is to provide a ‘qualitative assessment’ of the direct and indirect effects of adaptation options and to provide an assessment of some of the costs and benefits of adaptation options. The present report presents and summarizes the results of all phases of the study: an inventory of adaptation options, a qualitative assessment of the effects of the adaptation options for the Netherlands in the long run, a database which allows to rank the various options according to a set of criteria and a relative ranking on the basis of these criteria.