Give and take: How the funding of adaptation to climate change can improve the donor’s terms-of-trade.

This paper discusses the interplay between international trade, regional adaptation to climate change and financial transfers for funding adaptation. It combines insights from a theoretical model of North-to-South transfers with the findings of a calibrated dynamic multi-region multi-sector computable general equilibrium model that takes into account the impacts of climate change and the adaptation to it. Assessing the effects of adaptation funding indicates that funding of adaptation in developing regions can be Pareto-improving.

The Costs of Adaptation to Climate Change for Water Infrastructure in OECD Countries

There is concern that climate change may greatly increase the costs of providing water infrastructure in rich countries, but the estimates available cannot be compared across countries. This paper develops and applies a top-down approach to estimate the costs of adapting to climate change on a consistent basis for different climate scenarios. The analysis separates (a) the costs of maintaining service standards for a baseline projection of demand, and (b) the costs of changes in water use and infrastructure as a consequence of changes in climate patterns.

Measuring climatic impacts on energy consumption: A review of the empirical literature

This paper reviews the literature on the relationship between climate and the energy sector. In particular,we primarily discuss empirical papers published in peer-reviewed economics journals focusing on how climate affects energy expenditures and consumption. Climate will affect energy consumption by changing how consumers respond to short run weather shocks (the intensive margin) as well as how people will adapt in the long run (the extensivemargin).

The scope for adaptation to climate change : what can we learn from the impact literature?

Neither the costs nor the benefits of adaptation to climate change have been systematically studied so far. This paper discusses the extent to which the vast body of literature on climate change impacts can provide insights into the scope and likely cost of adaptation. The ways in which the impacts literature deals with adaptation can be grouped into four categories: no adaptation, arbitrary adaptation, observed adaptation (analogues), and modeled adaptation (optimization). All four cases are characterized by the simple assumptions made about the mechanisms of adaptation.

How might climate change affect economic growth in developing countries? : a review of the growth literature with a climate lens

This paper reviews the empirical and theoretical literature on economic growth to examine how the four components of the climate change bill, namely mitigation, proactive (ex ante) adaptation, reactive (ex post) adaptation, and ultimate damages of climate change affect growth, especially in developing countries. The authors consider successively the Cass-Koopmans growth model and three major strands of the subsequent literature on growth: with multiple sectors, with rigidities, and with increasing returns.

Balancing expenditures on mitigation of and adaptation to climate change : an exploration of issues relevant to developing countries

Although climate policies have been so far mostly focused on mitigation, adaptation to climate change is a growing concern in developed and developing countries. This paper discusses how adaptation fits into the global climate strategy, at the global and national levels. To do so, a partial equilibrium optimization model of climate policies—which includes mitigation, proactive adaptation (ex ante), and reactive adaptation (ex post)—is solved without and with uncertainty. Mitigation, proactive adaptation, and reactive adaptation are found to be generally jointly determined.

Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries. Chapter 19: Diarrheal Diseases.

Diarrheal diseases remain a leading cause of preventable death, especially among children under five in developing countries. This chapter reviews and prioritizes a number of available interventions.

Adaptation benefits and costs: are they important in the global policy picture and how can we estimate them?

This paper has three broad objectives. The first is to examine a little more carefully a main theme of this issue of Global Environmental namely: the usefulness of information about the global marginal benefits of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions to various groups in both developed and developing countries.

Synthesis report on the National Economic, Environment and Development Study (NEEDS) for Climate Change Project

This document synthesizes the information contained in the reports of 10 of the countries that participated in the National Economic, Environment and Development Study (NEEDS) for climate change project.

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