Integrating seasonal forecasts and insurance for adaptation among subsistence farmers : the case of Malawi

Climate variability poses a severe threat to subsistence farmers in southern Africa. Two different approaches have emerged in recent years to address these threats: the use of seasonal precipitation forecasts for risk reduction (for example, choosing seed varieties that can perform well for expected rainfall conditions), and the use of innovative financial instruments for risk sharing (for example, index-based weather insurance bundled to microcredit for agricultural inputs). So far these two approaches have remained entirely separated.

Weather Vulnerability, Climate Change, and Food Security in Mt. Kilimanjaro.

This study estimates the impact of rainfall variation on livelihood in Mt. Kilimanjaro using the Ricardian approach to capture farmers’ adaptation strategies to cope with climate change risks. The data for the analysis were gathered from a random sample of over 200 households in 15 villages and precipitation from rainfall observation posts placed in each of the surveyed villages. The precipitation data provide information on the effect of moisture at critical months in the growing season.

How might climate change affect economic growth in developing countries? : a review of the growth literature with a climate lens

This paper reviews the empirical and theoretical literature on economic growth to examine how the four components of the climate change bill, namely mitigation, proactive (ex ante) adaptation, reactive (ex post) adaptation, and ultimate damages of climate change affect growth, especially in developing countries. The authors consider successively the Cass-Koopmans growth model and three major strands of the subsequent literature on growth: with multiple sectors, with rigidities, and with increasing returns.

Balancing expenditures on mitigation of and adaptation to climate change : an exploration of issues relevant to developing countries

Although climate policies have been so far mostly focused on mitigation, adaptation to climate change is a growing concern in developed and developing countries. This paper discusses how adaptation fits into the global climate strategy, at the global and national levels. To do so, a partial equilibrium optimization model of climate policies—which includes mitigation, proactive adaptation (ex ante), and reactive adaptation (ex post)—is solved without and with uncertainty. Mitigation, proactive adaptation, and reactive adaptation are found to be generally jointly determined.

Economy-wide impacts of climate change on agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Two possible adaptation options to climate change for Sub-Saharan Africa are analyzed under the SRES B2 scenario. The first scenario doubles irrigated areas in Sub-Saharan Africa by 2050, compared to the baseline, but keeps total crop area constant. The second scenario increases both rainfed and irrigated crop yields by 25 percent for all Sub-Saharan African countries. The two adaptation scenarios are analyzed with IMPACT, a partial equilibrium agricultural sector model combined with a water simulation model, and with GTAP-W, a general equilibrium model including water resources.

Climate change and adaptation : the case of Nigerian agriculture

The present research offers an economic assessment of climate change impacts on the four major crop families characterizing Nigerian agriculture, covering more than 80% of agricultural value added. The evaluation is performed shocking land productivity in a computable general equilibrium model tailored to replicate Nigerian economic development until the mid of this century. The detail of land uses in the model has been also increased differentiating land types per agro ecological zones.

Bridging the Gap between Climate Change and Development

The overall objective of this study is to explore synergies and trade-offs in mainstreaming responses to climate change within development planning and assistance, with natural resource management as an overarching theme. There is a particular emphasis on implications for development co-operation activities of OECD donors, as well as for national and regional planners in developing countries.

Applying cost benefit analysis at a community level. ANNEX B: Applying cost benefit analysis.

The aim of this report is to present a high-level review of recent studies that have field-tested CBA either to inform or evaluate community-based climate and disaster risk management ini-tiatives. This report updates a synthesis report (that was written in 2010 and included 11 original studies) and involved a desk-based review of a total of 23 studies. Annex B describes the three approaches possible for CBAs.

Applying cost benefit analysis at a community level. ANNEX A: Case studies: Cost benefit analysis of community-based disaster/climate risk management.

The aim of this report is to present a high-level review of recent studies that have field-tested CBA either to inform or evaluate community-based climate and disaster risk management ini-tiatives. This report updates a synthesis report (that was written in 2010 and included 11 original studies) and involved a desk-based review of a total of 23 studies. A synopsis of each study is provided in Annex A of this report.

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